Civil society is defined as the total number of sciences, economists, social and cultural institutions that operate in relative independence from state authority and from the profits of companies in the private sector. In other words, civil society is a مدنیه institution that does not exercise power “in sector” and does not pursue an economical profit, but it is in the interest of making decisions outside the institutions sciences.
Civil society has a غایات to defend the economical and class interests of the members of the trade unions and the rise in the level of professionalism, It has social and cultural purposes, as well as in the associations of writers, intellectuals, cultural and socio-political groups that are aimed at spreading awareness according to the dissatisfaction decree within the Community programme.
It is also defined as a group of civil and social institutions and a range of channels, And the messages that the society is expressing its interests and goals, Through it, it can defend itself against the tyranny of the political community of the state.
1. Human rights defenders
2. Human rights organizations
3. Alliances and Networks
4. Religious-based groups
5. Professional federations and trade unions
6. Social Movements
8. Public institutions
The situation of civil society organizations in the Arab States in accordance with their four regional divisions can be described as follows:
Arab Maghreb states:
The institutions of civil society in the Maghreb countries (relatively) are active by virtue of their proximity to European countries. This was evident in the Tunisian revolution, Trade unions and workers had an important role to play in achieving one of the objectives of the revolution, which was to overthrow the regime of former President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.
The Arabian Gulf and Iraq:
There are almost no manifestations of civil society in these countries, except that there are images of some professional and labour unions.
Civil society institutions in Egypt were active during the reign of former President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak, Despite the fact that it was curtailed by the political system, it organized a number of demonstrations, sit-ins and strikes during the Mubarak era, And had a prominent role in his disqualification from the rule, But observers are now taking a mock role under the rule of President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi.
Bilad al-Sham (Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine):
Or is there a little presence of civil society institutions in Syria during the reign of the Assad family, While the institutions of civil society are relatively active in Jordan and not other countries of the Levant, Within a very limited freedom roof, Their role is often confined to demonstrations calling for increased salaries and support for the Palestinian people.
The Lebanese society is characterized by openness and freedom, but it suffers from a lot of sectarian and political tensions, He also suffered from a long civil war that led to the disintegration of social bonds, As a result, Lebanese society enjoys something from the (European civil) level at several levels below political levels.
The Palestinian society lacks the institutions of civil society because of the existence of the Israeli occupation.
The role of civil society institutions in achieving sustainable development can be attributed to several levels in the family, educational institutions, workers, trade unions, scientists, social and sports clubs and the media in achieving sustainable development, religious institutions and councils Local folk in towns and villages.